Rising temperatures contribute to increasing heat stress, driving morbidity and mortality. These effects are particularly marked in cities owing to excess impervious surfaces and depletion of natural landscapes. Mitigation measures are thus required to minimize premature deaths. Green infrastructure — including green roofs or facades, expanded park areas and increased tree coverage — is one such strategy, whereby urban temperatures are reduced via conversion of sensible heat to latent heat, shade provision, and increased albedo.

In addition to cooling the urban environment, tree planting also offers other co-benefits, including mitigating air pollution, reducing noise pollution and enhancing mental health. Tree planting should be used in conjunction with other mitigation strategies to maximise benefits, in particular some can act to reduce night-time temperatures, such as changing surface material and increasing the sky view factor.